A herniated disc is sometimes referred to as a slipped disc or a ruptured disc. It is often the result of
an injury or trauma to the spine. This may cause tiny tears or cracks in the hard outer layer of the disc. When this happens, the gel inside the disc can be forced out through the tears or cracks in the outer layer of the disc.
A bulging disc is a condition related to the spine, usually the lower back, occurring when a disc bulges outside the space it should normally occupy through a crevice in the spine.
Degenerative disc disease is a term used to describe the normal changes in your spinal discs as you age. Disc degeneration is a natural part of aging and over time all people will exhibit changes in their discs consistent with a greater or lesser degree of degeneration.
Arthritis can affect any part of the body, even the spine. It occurs when the cartilage in the joints is worn down as a result of wear and tear, aging, injury or misuse.
A bone spur can cause wear and tear or pain if it presses or rubs on other bones or soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, or nerves in the body.
The facet joints are the joint structures that connect the vertebrae to one another.
Facet disease occurs when there is degeneration of the facet joint. With age related natural wear and tear of the spine, facet disease develops as the spinal discs become thinner, placing more stress on the facet joints. The increased stress causes inflammation and formation of bone spurs leading to arthritis of the facet joint, or facet syndrome.
A pinched nerve occurs when too much pressure is applied to a nerve by surrounding tissues such as bone spurs, disc herniation and ligaments. Symptoms include numbness, “pins and needles” or burning sensations, and pain radiating outward from the injured area.
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one or more areas in your spine most often in your upper or lower back. This narrowing can put pressure on your spinal cord or on the nerves that branch out from the compressed areas. Symptoms might appear gradually or not at all. They include pain in your neck or back, numbness, weakness or pain in your arms or legs, and foot problems.
Quite similar to spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis primarily affects one or more areas of your spine. Foraminal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal foramen, the hole through which passes a spinal nerve as it exits the spine. Because the foramen is a relatively small area, anything affecting that area can cause foraminal stenosis and pinch the nerves inside the foramen.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty.